The Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research (IIFSR) has its origin from the Stewart Scheme of Simple Fertilizer Trials on Cultivators’ fields, which was initiated in 1952-53. In 1955-56, Model Agronomic Experiments Scheme was also added to it. Both the schemes were further merged with All India Coordinated Agronomic Research Project (AICARP) in 1968 with two components viz. Model Agronomic Experiments and Simple Fertilizer Trials. Henceforth the objectives of Model Agronomic Experiments were broadened to encompass studies on the response of high yielding varieties of cereals to high input use (fertilizer, irrigation, weed control, liming etc.). The system-based research was also initiated in the project during early sixties as a part of the AICARP. However, to strengthen all aspects of research in cropping systems Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research (PDCSR) was established at Modipuram (Meerut) in April 1989. During past, extremely useful work has been done at PDCSR on various aspects of cropping systems in the country. The information related to region-specific new cropping systems with better productivity, profitability and/or resource use efficiencies, cropping system-based nutrient and resource management aspects have been generated. So far, the contributions of PDFSR and it’s coordinated/network programmers have been well appreciated by the users/ development agencies. The significant contributions have been made on various aspects of region-specific system-based technologies for crop-diversification and intensification, cropping systems management, site-specific nutrient management, balanced nutrition, integrated nutrient management, farm mechanization, precision farming, tillage and crop establishment, precision farming, organic farming, farming systems and resource characterization, delineation of cropping systems zones, on-farm technology assessment and refinement and development of agricultural resources information system for crops and cropping systems.